Generally, these are iron-base alloys that contain high amounts of chromium (greater than 18 percent) and carbon (greater than 3 percent). These elements form hard carbides (chromium carbides) that resist abrasion. The deposits frequently check-crack about every 1/2 in., which helps relieve stress from welding. Their low friction coefficient also makes them desirable in applications that require material with good slip.
Generally speaking, the abrasion resistance increases as the amount of carbon and chromium increases, although carbon has the most influence. Hardness values range from 40 HRC to 65 HRC. They also can contain other elements that can form other carbides or borides that help increase wear resistance in high-temperature applications. These alloys are limited to two or three layers.