Can hardness values be used to predict abrasion resistance?

No, this isn’t a good idea. A martensitic alloy and a chromium carbide alloy can have the same hardness, let’s say 58 HRC, and perform vastly different under the same abrasive conditions. The metallurgical micro-structure is a better measuring stick, but that isn’t always available.

The only time hardness can be used to predict wear is when the alloys being evaluated are within the same family. For example, in the martensitic family, a 55 HRC alloy will have better abrasion resistance than a 35 HRC alloy. This may or may not be the case in either the austenitic or metal carbide families. Again, you have to consider the micro-structure. You should consult with the manufacturer for recommendations.